explaining the long tale

The long tail has been extensively discussed.  But what about the long tale?  What is the nature and significance of the long tale?

Consider two very long tales. The longest tale printed with a Latin or Cyrillic alphabet is Madeleine de Scudéry’s Artamène, ou le Grand Cyrus.  This type of work is known among specialists as a “roman de longue haleine” (long-winded novel). First published in Paris, 1649-1653, Artamène consists of ten volumes encompassing 7,443 pages and about 2.1 million words. A second long tale is Samuel Richardson’s Clarissa, or, the History of a Young Lady, published in London in 1748. Its first edition has seven volumes with a total of 2564 pages and about a million words.[1]

Reading a long tale takes a long time. At current, typical prose reading speed, Artamène would take about 140 hours to read. But in the seventeenth century, books were often read aloud. Reading aloud takes roughly 70% more time than silent reading.[2] Moreover, if reading occurred by candlelight, the need to maintain and trim the candle plausibly might increase reading time by 5%. So reading Artamène could easily have required 250 hours of reading time. Reading Clarissa could easily have required 100 hours of reading time.

While they were long tales, Artamène and Clarissa were also best-sellers of their times. One scholar declared of Artamène:

from 1649 to 1654, from one end of France to the other, at the court and in the most aristocratic circles, as well as among the more cultivated bourgeoisie, at Paris and in the provinces, in all ranks of a society the most polite in the world, one read them not merely with pleasure, one seized upon, one devoured bit by bit as they appeared, every one of those ten great volumes.[3]

In the course of printing, the printer increased the print run for currently printing volumes and printed additional copies of earlier volumes. While printing of the first edition finished in 1653, by 1655 the printer had already produced a complete fourth edition and a printer in England had already printed an English translation of the full, ten-volume work.[4] From 1654 to 1660, Scudéry produced another ten-volume work Clélie, Histoire Romaine. That action testifies to the success of Artamène. Clélie turned out also to be highly popular.[5]

The success of Clarissa can be described more quantitatively. Richardson probably printed 3000 sets of the seven-volume, first edition of Clarissa in 1748.  He printed additional editions of Clarissa in 1749, 1751, and 1759.  These later editions probably amounted in total to about 3000 sets.[6] Through 1769, a total of eleven editions of Clarissa were printed in London and Dublin.  For comparison, few editions of British novels between 1750 and 1770 had print runs greater than 1,000, and most probably were printed in 500-800 copies.[7]

Just as did Scudéry, Richardson quickly followed one long tale with another.  About five years after writing and publishing Clarissa, Richardson wrote and published a new work, The History of Sir Charles Grandison (1753). Its first edition has seven volumes comprising 2459 text pages and about 907,000 words.[8] Three editions comprising 6,500 sets were printed within a year.[9] Both the size and print runs of Grandison suggest the prior success of Clarissa.

The commercial success of Clarissa measures reasonable well against that of Richardson’s path-breaking best-seller, Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740). Pamela probably sold 20,000 two-volume sets within fourteen months after it was first published and had fourteen editions through 1769.[10]  Total volumes sold of Pamela through 1769 probably did not exceed by more than 50% those sold of Clarissa. Moreover, in 1766, the copyright of Pamela sold for £288, while the copyright for Clarissa sold for £600.[11] Both Pamela and Clarissa were best-sellers in America. Pamela, published in the U.S. in 1744, sold more than 10,000 copies through 1749. Clarissa, published in the U.S. in 1786, sold more than 25,000 copies through 1789.[12]

Long tales published in the twentieth century differ significantly from Artamène and Clarissa. Marcel Proust’s À la recherche du temps perdu has nine volumes totaling about 3,200 pages and 1.5 million words.[13] Despite considerable advances in writing and printing technology, Proust’s work was published over a fifteen-year period (1913-1927), while Scudéry’s Artamène, about 50% longer, was published over only a five-year period (1649-1653). Moreover, Artamène was a best-seller, while À la recherche du temps perdu was far from a best-seller. The first volume of Proust’s work had an initial print run of 1,750 copies, and perhaps 4,100 copies were printed between 1913 and 1918.[14] A best-seller in the U.S. about this time would sell 900,000 copies to a population about twice the size of France’s.[15] Other long tales of the twentieth century attracted even less popular attention than Proust’s work.

The closest the past century has come to producing a best-selling long tale is J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series.  The seven Harry Potter books, published from 1997 to 2007, have a total of 4175 pages and about a million words.[16]  The final book in the series broke sales records by selling 2.7 million copies in the U.K. and 8.3 million copies in the U.S. in its first 24-hours on sale.  The Harry Potter series as a whole differs from a long tale in that its volumes were marketed as single works and not widely sold as a set.  Moreover, the Harry Potter series was published over a period more than twice as long as that for Artamène and Clarissa. Rowling shows no signs of adopting the form of the Harry Potter series as a template for another work.  Instead, Rowling plans to take time off and then write an encyclopedia of Harry Potter characters and places. The Harry Potter series has not re-established the long tale as a generic type of work.

Vertical integration favors the production of the long tale. The longer the tale, the greater the cost and the risk in printing it.  Richardson was not only an author; he was also a master printer who printed his own works.  Thus he did not have to pay another printer for the cost and risk of printing a long tale.  The more imperfect the market for printing and risk-bearing, the greater the advantage to being able to assume both these functions within an author-printer enterprise.  Richardson produced Clarissa and Grandison with the advantage of vertical integration at a time when transaction costs associated with the nascent novel-printing business were relatively high.

Social influence favors the success of the long tale. Recent research indicates that greater social influence favors greater concentration of demand among the most highly popular works.[17]  Salons and coffee houses were important social institutions in seventeenth-century France and eighteenth-century England. Scudéry herself conducted at her Paris home an important salon known as Samedi:

the main purpose of the salon was for amusement. Among the activities were excursions, elegant dinners, and surprise visits to friends staying in the country. The glory of a certain pastry shop in rue Saint-Honoré that Mlle de Scudéry and her friends loved to frequent has come down to us and we also know of Mme Aragonais’ dolls, which the ladies of the Samedi dressed in the current mode. Other diversions were the experiments done by Claude Perrault, architect and anatomist, to observe the chameleon’s ability to change to change color according to its environment. … Poems were exchanged, of course, as were certain gallantries…[18]

The vibrant salon world of seventeenth-century France created extensive, powerful channels for social influence. Social influence arising from these salons, and from Scudéry’s position as a leading salonnière, are probably an important part of the explanation for the long tail.

starting to read Richardson's Clarissa

The communication industry has changed greatly since the time of Artamène and Clarissa. The average duration of online videos watched in the U.S. in March, 2008, was only 2.8 minutes per video.  That’s much, much less than the 250 hours it probably took to read the best-seller Artamène in seventeenth-century France. Less vertical integration on the supply side and less social influence on the demand side may be an important part of the explanation for this huge difference.

*  *  *  *  *


[1] Artamène is available online. While the authorship of the work is not obvious, most scholars believe that Madeleine de Scudéry wrote it. The online source states that the first edition had 13,095 pages, while the online (1656) edition has 7443 pages. If that’s correct, the first edition must have had either a very large typeface or widely spaced lines. Wikipedia lists the word count as 2.1 million. I’ve verified the plausibility of this figure with page sampling from the online edition. Clarissa is also available online. My page count is first-edition text pages, as documented in Sale (1969) pp. 45-8. The word count is from the online edition; see long-tale data.
[2] Calculation based on a typical reading speed of 250 words per minute, and a typical speed for spoken text of 140 words per minute.
[3] Cousin (1886) v. 1, p. 2.
[4] Newman (2003) p. 1.
[5] Aronson (1978) pp. 54, 82.
[6] Keymer (1994) pp. 392-3. The later figure is based on scaling Rivington’s revenue figures.
[7] Raven (1987) pp. 15, 40.
[8] Page count for first edition, based on Sale (1969) pp. 70-4. Word count scaled from words in the online volume 4. See long-tale data.
[9] Eaves and Kimpel (1971) pp. 384, 401.
[10] Keymer and Sabor (2005) p. 20; Raven (1987) p. 15.
[11] Eaves and Kimpel (1971) p. 490.
[12] Mott (1966) p. 304. Grandison, also published in the U.S. in 1786, was a “better seller” (not quite a best-seller) from 1786-1789.
[13] The page count and word count are from Wikipedia, here and here.
[14] Tadié (2000) p. 595. According to a history of Éditions Gallimard, which became Proust’s publisher, the company sold more than four million copies of À la recherche du temps perdu (in French, apparently worldwide) in seventy years through its copyright expiration in 1987. A significant share of these copies may have been purchased due to course assignments.
[15] Mott (1966) App. A.
[16] From WikiAnswers here and here. Included in long-tale data.
[17] See Salganik, Dodds, and Watts (2006).
[18] Aronson (1978) p. 39.


Aronson, Nicole. 1978. Mademoiselle de Scudéry. Boston: Twayne Publishers.

Cousin, Victor. 1886. La société française au XVIIe siècle d’après Le Grand Cyrus de Mlle de Scudéry. Paris: Perrin & Cie.

Eaves, Thomas Cary Duncan, and Ben D. Kimpel. 1971. Samuel Richardson: a biography. Oxford: Clarendon.

Keymer, Tom. 1994. “Clarissa’s Death, Clarissia’s Sale, and the Text of the Second Edition.” Review of English Studies, New Series, v. xlv, n. 179, pp. 389-96.

Keymer, Tom, and Peter Sabor. 2005. Pamela in the marketplace: literary controversy and print culture in eighteenth-century Britain and Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mott, Frank Luther. 1966. Golden multitudes: the story of best sellers in the United States.

Newman, Karen. 2003. “Volume Editor’s Introduction,” in Scudéry, Madeleine de, and Karen Newman. 2003. The story of Sapho. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Raven, James. 1987. British fiction, 1750-1770: a chronological check-list of prose fiction printed in Britain and Ireland. Newark: University of Delaware Press.

Sale, William Merritt. 1969 [1936]. A Bibliographic Record of His Literary Career with Historical Notes. Archon Books.

Salganik, Matthew J., Peter Sheridan Dodds, and Duncan J. Watts. 2006. “Experimental study of inequality and unpredictability in an artificial cultural market,” Science, 311, 854-856 (2006).

Tadié, Jean-Yves. 2000. Marcel Proust. New York: Viking.

COB-25: forms

beautiful venting

Fast-paced, consumerist society emphasizes functionalism and results. Hungry? Go to a fast-food restaurant. Want to do something? Figure out how to get it done quickly and with the least amount of effort. The value of everything is instrumental.

Bureaucracy, in contrast, emphasizes the artistic and the beautiful. Long-time bureaucrats have deep appreciation for forms and the aesthetic qualities of experience itself. Rather than doing, bureaucracy is about being on the job.

So if you’re applying for a driver’s license, filling out a job application, completing your time sheet, or filing health insurance reimbursement forms, take time to appreciate the beauty of the forms in front of you.

Let’s Japan ponders a government initiative to get office workers out of suits and into shirt-sleeves shirts without ties. The submitter remarks, “Remove tie. Short sleeve shirt only. Follow the Japanese government rules. But Prime Minister doesn’t?” The Prime Minister, in his bureaucratic capacity, should have the same uniform that all other bureaucrats do. I recommend a unisex, short-sleeve, light-blue cotton dress shirt with a pocket protector.

Inside Facebook discusses Facebook’s evolving approach to platform governance. In short, less dependence on technology, more dependence on bureaucrats. A shrewd business move from an industry-leading company.

Umair Haque proposes A Manifesto for the Next Industrial Revolution. He declares:

What happens when we think of using new DNA to reorganize structurally inefficient industries? A blueprint for the next industrial revolution emerges. Here’s what it looks like.

Organize the world’s hunger.
Organize the world’s energy.
Organize the world’s thirst.
Organize the world’s health.
Organize the world’s freedom.
Organize the world’s finance.
Organize the world’s education.

That’s not an exhaustive list – it’s just a beginning.

No one has more experience in organizing organizations than bureaucrats. Thus the first step towards the next Industrial Revolution clearly is a massive employee re-training program to produce a large number of new bureaucrats.

JP Rangaswami at Confused of Calcutta identifies a bureaucratic training sheet that was stolen, surreptitiously hand-copied, and slyly erroneously inserted into an OSS Simple Sabotage Field Manuel. While most of the pseudo-text appears to be authentic, to a well-trained bureaucrat one line sticks out to reveal the deception: “Bring up irrelevant issues as frequently as possible.” The authentic text would have actually stated, “Bring up relevant issues as frequently as possible.”

Ugly Doggy presents an amusing video documenting the difficulty that private advertising agencies have had in designing stop signs. Government bureaucrats have successfully designed stop signs for decades. The private sector should learn from the public sector.

Louise Manning at the Human Imprint considers strengths and weaknesses. She asks:

So, is it a strength or a weakness to be able to apologise when you are in the wrong; a strength or a weakness to avoid conflict rather than create it?

Bureaucrats either always apologize or never apologize, irrespective of whether they are right or wrong. Bureaucrats avoid conflicts. I consider these behaviors to be strengths.

That’s all for this month’s Carnival of the Bureaucrats. Submit your blog article to the next edition using our carnival submission form. Submissions should conform to the Carnival’s regulations. Past editions of the Carnival of the Bureaucrats can be found on the Carnival’s category page.


A man climbs to stand in
a stratospheric wind.
Another scuba-dives through
subterranean streams.
The light at the crosswalk
flashes “Don’t Start”.

The world is flat.
Journeys to the East
yet returning from the West
only prove this.
The light at the crosswalk
flashes “Don’t Start”.

Striving cannot turn a
son into a friend, or
another into a mother.
The light at the crosswalk
flashes “Don’t Start”.

that pond
water striders
pulsing gently
making rain
that day
rain on hot road
smelling like bread