medieval Rainoart exemplifies uncivilized masculinity

The great medieval king Desramé sent his son Rainoart to be educated under a tutor. Rather than study, the youthful Rainoart played ball in a meadow. Rainoart’s tutor beat him bloody for that. In response, the enraged Rainoart struck his tutor with a stick so hard that it killed him. Then, fearing his father’s wrath, Rainoart ran away from home.

Merchants took the boy to Palermo. King Louis the Pious was there to visit a saint’s relics. The merchants sold Rainoart to Louis for a hundred marks of silver. Louis took Rainoart back to the royal court at Laon. Louis treated him badly:

I don’t know why it should be, but he began to hate me a lot.
I spent a long time in his kitchen.
I made the fire and removed the foam from the meat-stew,
cooked birds, and turned many roasts.
Everyone mocked me and held me in disdain.
More than seven years, I believe, I spent there.

{ Ne sai que dut: molt me coilli en he.
Ell la cuisine ai lonc tens conversé;
S’ai fet le feu et la char escumé,
Les osiax cuis et maint baste torné.
Tuit me gaboient et tindrent en vilté.
A grant travail i ai lonc tens esté;
Plus de .vii. ans, je cuit, i sont passé }[1]

Boys’ playfulness and passion can lead them into trouble. They deserve compassion and forgiveness.

The battered and defeated Count William of Orange came to King Louis’s court. William sought help from Louis, whom he had served long and well. Louis helped William only after William’s mother Ermengard courageously intervened. William subsequently noticed Rainoart:

From the kitchen he sees Rainoart return.
Through the middle of a side door he sees him enter the palace.
He has a large body and looks like a boar.
All of France has no more beautiful young man,
nor any so strong as to carry such a great burden,
nor better skilled a throwing a stone.
So great a burden he can carry, without lie I say,
as a cart would have much to bring there.
So in swiftness, there’s no one his equal in France,
and he’s bold and courageous when it comes to a fight.
The chief cook had Rainoart’s hair sheared during the night.
Working the fire-shovel he had been blackened and smeared.
His whole face had been done over with charcoal.

{ De la quisine voit Rainoart torner,
Par mi .i. huis ens el palais entrer.
Grant ot le cors et regart de sangler:
En toute France n’ot plus bei baceler,
Ne si tres fort por .i. grant fais porter,
Ne miex seüst .i. pierre jeter.
Si grant fais porte, sans mencoigne conter,
Une carete i a molt a mener;
Si est isniaus, n’a en France son per,
Preus et hardis, quant ce vient au mesler.
Li maistres keus l’ot fait la nuit toser,
A la palete noircir et mascurer.
Trestout le vis li out fait carboner. }[2]

With a viciousness so sadly characteristic of humans, others made fun of Rainoart because he was different:

The squires begin to make fun of him.
With huge brooms they push him around,
and push and shove him one against another.
Rainoart says, “If you don’t leave me be,
then, by the faith that I must bear to God,
if you make me angry at you,
whomever I catch I’ll make pay.
Am I now a fool, whom one should tease so?
Shameful is one who can be led in your game.
You have played your tricks in a wicked way.
Leave me in peace! I don’t seek to touch you.”

{ Cil escuier le prenent a gaber,
De grant torchas li prisent a ruer.
Et l’un sor l’autre et espandre et bouter.
Dist Rainoars: “Car me laissiés ester,
Ou, par la foi ke je doi dieu porter,
Se vos me faites envers vos aïrer,
Auqel ke soit le ferai comparer.
Sui jo or fous, qui on doive asoter?
Vilainement poés vo ju mener;
Mal dahés ait eure de vo juer!
Laissiés m’en pais! Ne vos quier adeser.” }

Despite this clear warning, a squire taunted Rainoart and slapped him:

And one of them says, “Now you have spoken valiantly.
brother Rainoart. Teach me how to fight!”
At these words he lets his palm go.
On the nape of Rainoart’s neck he gives a big slap,
so that the whole hall is made to resound with it.
Rainoart says, “Now I have endured too much.”
He goes swiftly to seize him in his arms,
spins him around twice, and at the third lets him go.
He hits a pillar with such force
that his sides break and his heart is made to burst,
and both his eyes fly from his head,
and his brain spreads and turns upside down.

{ Et dist li uns: “Or as tu dit ke ber.
Rainoars frere, car m’apren a muser!”
A icest mot laisse la paume aler,
El haterel li va grant cop doner,
Si ke la sale fist toute resoner.
Dist Rainoars: “Or puis trop andurer.”
Par mi les bras le va molt tost cobrer,
.ii. tours le torne, au tierc le lait aler.
Si roidement le fiert a .i. piler,
Ront li les costes, le cuer li fist crever
Et de la teste an .ii. les iex voler
Et la cervele espandre et reverser. }

Rainoart failed to control his strength. His response was disproportionate to the threat and thus morally wrong. So too was the squires’ subsequent response. Fifty squires attacked Rainoart with clubs. Full of wisdom, William’s elderly father Count Aimeri angrily warned the squires to back off. He said that if they didn’t, he would poke out their eyes. As a young man, Aimeri was famed for his warrior deeds. The squires prudently backed off.

William was impressed with Rainoart’s strength. He asked Louis to have him. Louis readily agreed. Delighted to be joining William’s army, Rainoart cut down King Louis’s favorite spruce tree to make a huge club for himself. That would be Rainoart’s weapon in fighting for William. Rainoart prized his club and delivered deadly blows with it. Yet he often misplaced it or forgot to bring it with him. Lacking his club caused him much despair.

Unlike other Frankish knights, Rainoart fought on foot, armed only with his club. Yet like the caveman baby Bamm-Bamm, Rainoart was extraordinarily strong in wielding his club. When ten thousand Franks sought to flee from the terrible battle for Orange, Rainoart clubbed fifty of them to death and then led the rest back into battle. Moving through fierce fighting, he made his way to the enemy ships. He shattered the ships’ masts and destroyed them. Then he stuck his club into the sea and leapt onto a barge that held Frankish nobles as prisoners. After clubbing the enemy warriors holding those captives, Rainoart freed them.

Among the prisoners that Rainoart freed was the noble knight Bertrand. He was William’s nephew. So that he could ride in battle for William, Bertrand asked Rainoart to seize a horse from an enemy knight. Rainoart saw enemy knights charging toward them:

Rainoart lifts his great, heavy club
and strikes on the enemy’s helmet and traverses him,
so that no armor could protect him.
He splits him totally through to the saddle,
and breaks totally the spine of his horse.
Thus in a moment everything is smashed.
With another blow he has killed Malquidant
and Samuel, Samul, and Salmuant.
Not even their horses are protected from death.

{ Rainouars hauce le grant tinel pesant,
Par mi son elme le fiert en trespassant,
Ainc de nule arme ne pot avoir garant;
Dusqe en la sele le va tot esmiant
Toute l’eschine dou ceval derompant;
Ens en un mont va tout acraventant.
A l’autre cop ra ocis Malquidant
Et Samuel, Samul et Salmuant.
Ainc li ceval n’orent de mort garant. }

Bertrand was dismayed:

“See,” said Bertrand, “if you strike in this way,
I will not have a horse from you while I live.”

{ “Voir,” dist Bertrans, “s’ensi alés ferant,
N’arons ceval par vos en no vivant.” }

Rainoart tried to soften his clubbing so that he would kill only the man and not also his mount. He repeatedly failed. He thus slaughtered many horses in killing men. Bertrand was in despair:

“See,” said Bertrand, “Now I know the truth,
Rainoart sir, you have gathered hatred for us.
From you we will have no protection or defense.”

{ “Voir,” dist Bertrans, “or sai de verité,
Rainouars sire, cueilli nous as en he.
Par toi n’en ermes garandi ne tensé.” }

Drawing upon recognized wisdom, Rainoart graciously excused himself:

Rainoart says, “I don’t do it on purpose,
sir Bertrand, now that you have reminded me of it.
I haven’t become accustomed to striking gently.
One who forgets what he’s never done or known,
by right view should be pardoned.
Now I will strike such that it will serve your purpose.”

{ Dist Rainouars: “Jou nel fas pas de gre,
Sire Bertran, or le m’as ramembré;
Le boutement n’ai pas acoustumé.
Ki chou oublie k’il n’a fait ne usé,
Par droit esgart doit estre pardoné.
Or bouterai, puis qu’il vos vient a gre.” }

Rainoart finally killed a man without also killing his horse. He gave the horse to the delighted knight Bertrand.

Rainoart himself had never ridden a horse. However, he sought to be a proper horse-borne knight, rather than move about on foot. So Rainoart clubbed another enemy knight and took his charger:

Rainoart is in the middle of the sand,
holding the horse by double reins.
He isn’t accustomed to riding.
He knows more about kitchen smoke,
when it goes forth most strongly and most plentifully.
When he mounts, he doesn’t use any stirrups,
but leaps on the saddle with his front fully to the rear.
Towards the tail he has directed his face.

{ Rainonars fu en mi la sablonniere;
Tint le cheval par la regne doubliere.
Del cevaucier n’estoit pas costumiere;
De la cuisine counoist mius la fumiere,
Quant elle en ist plus grant et plus pleniere.
Quant du monter, onques n’i quist estriere,
Saut en la sele tot ce devant deriere,
Devers la queue a tornee sa ciere. }

He spurred the horse. It charged forward with him facing backwards. His ride was short:

Before he could say a word, he falls off the rear
and drops his large and powerful club.
The baron hangs on by the tail at the rear,
and the horse drags him through the dust.
Before the horse had finished it went up to a river.
There it left Rainoart in a rut.

{ Ains n’en sot mot, si caï par derriere.
Si li chaï sa grant perce pleniere.
Li bers se tint a la keue derriere,
Et li chevaus le trait par la poudriere.
Ains ne fina jasqu’a une riviere;
Illuec laissa Rainouart en l’ordiere. }

Furious, Rainoart grabbed the horse and struck it twice with his fist. The horse fell to the ground. The primitive hitman Mongo with just one punch performed the same feat in Blazing Saddles.[3]

Then the wicked woman-warrior Flohart attacked Rainoart. She was enraged that he had killed her brother, the human-flesh-eating Grishart. Frankish knights greatly feared Flohart:

She’s 15 feet tall, so the Franks estimate,
and she’s wrapped in a buffalo hide.
With only her scythe she enters into battle.
From killing men she’s totally exhausted.
Whomever she reaches, his life is totally finished,
for against her scythe, no weapon can last.
It sounds like hurled bolts of thunder.
With each blow, the dirty old mad-woman
kills a large cart-load of men.
William points her out to Rainoart.
“God,” says William, “holy, honored Virgin Mary,
what beast is this that I see armed there?
She makes much great massacre of our men.
If she lives long, we will never endure it.”

{ .XV. piés ot, tant l’ont Francois esmee,
D’un cuir de bugle estoit enveloppee.
O tot sa faus est en l’estor entree.
De gent tuër estoit toute lasee;
Qui ele ataint, toute a sa vie usee.
Contre sa faus n’a nule arme duree,
Autresi bruit con foudres destelee;
A chescun cop l’orde viele dervee
Ocit de gent une grant charetee.
A Eainouart l’a Guillaumes mostree.
“Dex,” dist Guillaumes, “sainte virge henoree,
Quel beste est ce que je voi la armee?
De nostre gent fet molt grant lapidee.
S’ele vit longues, ja n’i avrons duree.” }

When Flohart charged at him, Rainoart didn’t retreat:

Rainoart comes to the encounter with her,
and shouts to her, “Despicable old mad-woman,
what living devils have cast you out of Hell?
By what demons were you engendered,
since you are a crowned queen?
You should be in your paved chamber
with a demon who would love you.
For a whole mine full of good coin,
I wouldn’t have your virginity.”

{ Et Rainouars li vient a l’encontree,
Si li escrie: “Pute vielle desvee,
Quels vis diables vous ont d’enfer gitee?
De quex maufés fustes vos engendree,
Puis que vous estes reïne coronee?
Deüssiés estre en vo chambre pavee
O un maufé qui vous eüst amee.
Por plaine mine de bons besans comblee
Ne vous voudroie avoir despucelee.” }

She lashed at him with her scythe. He defended himself with his club. They came to fierce, close combat:

With her fist she strikes him by the side of the ear
such that two of his teeth are cracked and shattered.
Rainoart says,”You have paid me well.”
He jumps forward and embraces the old woman
and she him. She isn’t a bit afraid.
With such power, don’t you doubt a bit
that Rainoart had his back bent.
But Rainoart twists his head away
because the stench of Flohart torments him.
It’s a stench that stinks more than rotting flesh.
Then Flohart seizes him by his helmet’s face-mask.
With her teeth she tears it from the hauberk,
and she swallows it, as if it were cheese.

{ Del poing le fiert par dejouste l’oïe,
Que .ii. des dens li pecoie et esmie.
Dist Rainouars: “Bone m’avés païe.”
Il saut avant, la vielle a embracie
Et elle lui, ne fu mie esbahie.
Par tel vertu, nel mescreés vos mie,
Qu’a Rainouart a l’eschine ploïe.
Mais Rainouars a la teste guenchie,
Car la puors de Flohart le cuivrie,
Qui plus puoit que charoigne porrie.
Et Flohart a la ventaille saisie,
As dens li a del hauberc esrachie;
Ausi l’anglot, que ce fust formagie. }

In this desperate situation, Rainoart fearfully turned to a medieval man’s most powerful intercessor:

Rainoart says, “Holy Lady Mary,
to you I commend my body and my life.
I have great fear that this one will kill me.”

{ Dist Rainouars: “Dame sainte Marie,
A vous commant et mon cors et ma vie.
Grant poor ai que ceste ne m’ocie.” }

Not taking any chances, Rainoart also appealed to other, lesser saints:

He invokes God and sweetly he prays,
“Saint Leonard, who frees the prisoners, help me.
Saint Julien, I pledge my club to you.
On your altar I’ll place it in good faith,
if from this battlefield I can carry the prize.”

{ Deu reclama et dolcement li proie:
“Saint Lienart, qui les prisons desloie,
Saint Julien, mon tinel vous otroie:
Sor vostre autel de bon euer le metroie,
Se de cest champ le pris porter pouoie.” }

With divine favor, Rainoart struck the mad woman-warrior Flohart and killed her. Rainoart loved nothing more than his club. But he honored his pledge to Saint Julien:

He takes his club, and he kisses and fondles it.
Rainoart says, “For sure, I would not give you up,
sir club, for the city of Troy.
But the good saint will have you nonetheless.”

{ Son tinel prent, si le baisse et paumoie.
Dist Rainouars: “Certes, ne vos donroie,
Sire tinel, por la cité de Troie.
Mais li bon saint vous avra toute voie.” }[4]

Rainoart’s reference to Troy alludes to the horrific Greek siege of Troy for the sake of Helen. Although rough and uncivilized, Rainoart at least wouldn’t have traded his club for Helen of Troy.

Like most men, Rainoart would do nearly anything for a sister. After William of Orange insultingly forgot about him, Rainoart became furious. He resolved to go home, return with a huge army, and make devastating war against Orange. William sent envoys to apologize on his behalf to Rainoart. Rainoart insulted the envoys and sent them away. Then William himself went to apologize to Rainoart:

Rainoart, sir, let me talk with you.
If you know to accuse me now of a wrong,
as you please, I would like to make amends for it,
as extensively as you might devise.

{ Rainouars sire, laissiés m’a vos parler!
Se de mesfait me savés or reter,
A vo plesir le voldrai amender
Si hautement com savrés deviser. }

Rainoart said that they didn’t care what William said or did. He again threatened to attack Orange. Then William’s wife Guiborc, who was Rainoart’s sister, begged him to forgive William. Rainoart acquiesced:

What you wish I do not want to refuse to you.
What pleases you I should well allow
and pardon the wrong of William.
For your love I wish to call him absolved.
Never in my life will you hear me speak of it again!
But by Him who can save us all,
if it weren’t for you — I wouldn’t seek to deny it to you —
all the gold in the world wouldn’t last to protect him.

{ Rien que vuelliés ne vos vuel deveer.
Vostre plaisir doi jo bien creanter
Et le mesfait Guillame pardoner;
Por vostre amor li voil quite clamer.
Ja en ma vie n’en orrés mais parler!
Mais par celui qui trestot puet salver,
Ne fust por vos, ja nel vos quier celer,
Tot l’or del mont ne le petist tenser! }

Without the help of their sisters and mothers and other women of good will, men would be doomed.

Like Rainoart, many men endure difficult childhoods and as adults are regarded as rough and uncivilized. Yet without Rainoart’s help Guiborc and William’s city of Orange surely would have been conquered.[5] Men’s “repulsive” masculinity can serve others’ interests. That’s not a good reason for tolerating men. Men, even rough and uncivilized men such as Rainoart, deserve love and compassion because they are human beings.

* * * * *

Read more:


[1] Aliscans, vv. 42-8 (CLXXXIVc), Old French text from Wienbeck, Hartnacke & Rasch (1903), English translation (modified) from Ferrante (1974). Subsequent quotes from Aliscans are similarly sourced. Wienbeck, Hartnacke & Rasch include some laisses inserted from particular manuscripts. The are identified by verse numbers within the laisse and the laisse number (in parathenses), with an appended letter, e.g. CLXXXIVc. For verses within the main verse numbering, I give just the verse numbers.

Aliscans is a twelfth-century “song of deeds {chanson de geste}.” It’s part of the Old French epic cycle known as the Deeds of Garin de Monglane {Geste de Garin de Monglane} or the Cycle of William of Orange {Cycle de Guillaume d’Orange}.

Two chansons de geste focus on Rainoart: Rainoart in the Monastery {Le Moniage Rainoart} and The Battle of Loquifer {La Bataille Loquifer}. Those two together are known as The Deeds of Rainoart {La Geste Rainouart}.

In the chanson de geste Floovant, composed about 1170, the young hero Floovant shaves his tutor’s beard. For that offense, Floovant’s father was ready to kill him. However, because of his mother’s pleading, his father merely exiled him for seven years. Floovant, vv. 72-205. For an English translation, Newth (2014).

The Saracent giant Escopart in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman Boeve de Haumtone is similar to Rainoart (similarly the giant Ascopard in the Middle-English translation Bevis of Hampton). Escopart has a mishapen appearance and fights with club. He also acts crudely. For example, he jumps feet-first into a huge baptismal “tub.” Chilled by the water, Escopart denounces the presiding bishop. Boeve de Haumtone, vv. 1969-87, Old French (Anglo-Norman) edition of Stimming (1899), English translation in Weiss (2008).

Subsequent quote above are from Aliscans, vv. 3148-60 (From the kitchen he sees Rainoart return…), 3161-71 (The squires begin to make fun of him…), 3172-82 (And one of them says…), 5440-8 (Rainoart lifts his great, heavy club…), 5449-50 (“See,” said Bertrand, “if you strike…”), 5525-7 (“See,” said Bertrand, “Now I know…”), 5527-32 (Rainoart says, “I don’t do it on purpose…”), 6153-9 (Rainoart is in the middle of the sand…), 6169-74 (Before he could say a word…), 6517-23 (She’s 15 feet tall…), 6529-37 (Rainoart comes to the encounter…), 6554-65 (With her fist she strikes him…), 6566-8 (Rainoart says, “Holy Lady Mary…”), 6571-5 (He invokes God…), 6580-3 (He takes his club…), 7759-2 (Rainoart, sir, let me talk with you…), 7800-7 (What you wish I do not want to refuse…).

[2] While William admired the beauty of the blackened Rainoart, a Saracen disparaged him for his tattered clothes and smoke-blackened skin. Rainoart responded:

Rainoart says, “Don’t you now insult me!
What does it matter to you if my clothes are torn,
and if my flesh is black and bristled?
The heart is never wrapped in cloth
or bordered in speckled fur or ermine,
but it rests well inside the belly.”

{ Dist Rainouars: “Or ne me ramponés!
A vos qu’en tient, se ai dras despennés
Et si mes chars est noyre et hurupés,
Li cuers n’est mie en dras envelopés
N’en vair n’en gris ne en ermin golés,
Ains est ou ventre dedens bien reposés.” }

Aliscans, vv. 85-90 (CXXIb).

[3] Mel Brooks’s Blazing Saddles premiered in the U.S. in 1974. According to IMDb Blazing Saddles trivia:

The scene in which Mongo knocks out a horse has a basis in reality. Mel Brooks’ former Your Show of Shows (1950) and Caesar’s Hour (1954) boss, Sid Caesar, who was a physically imposing and somewhat violent man, reported in his 1982 autobiography “Where Have I Been?” that while trailriding with his wife, her horse caused trouble and he punched it once between the eyes. The horse collapsed, unconscious. He notes that this event was Brooks’ inspiration for the “Mongo vs. horse” scene.

The credibility and actual influence of Sid Caesar’s story is questionable. Alternatively, perhaps one of Mel Brooks’s screenwriters knew of Rainoart’s deed in Aliscans.

Mongo rides a bull with “Yes” painted on one buttock and “No” painted on another. IMDb Blazing Saddles trivia states:

This is apparently a reference to the practice in the 1950s of marking the back of school buses for which side was safe to pass on, essentially implying that Mongo and his mount are as big as a bus.

That alleged allusion seems contrived. Mongo is depicted as a “medieval” character according to the conventions of modern medievalism. Peter Abelard’s philosophical-theological treatise Yes and No {Sic et Non}, which he wrote in the 1120s, was an influential medieval work. Mongo’s bull seems to underscore his contradictory medieval character with a humorous reference to Abelard’s treatise. More research is needed on the relation of Blazing Saddles to medieval literature.

[4] Rainoart’s love for his club ironically reflects medieval knights’ love for their horses. In Aliscans, William of Orange repeatedly pleaded with his horse Baucent. William attempted to spur Baucent to make it back to Orange:

If you would endure to lead me back to Orange,
there you wouldn’t be saddled before three months pass,
there you wouldn’t eat barley that hadn’t been ground
two or three times, when it’s in your neck-feeder,
and the forage would be noble grass of the meadow,
all selected and sifted in season.
You wouldn’t drink from any cup not made of gold,
you would be groomed four times a day
and wrapped completely in expensive cloth.
If some pagans carry you off to Spain,
so help me God, I will be very angry.

{ S’estre petisses a Orenge menez,
N’i montast sele devant .iii. mois passez,
N’i mengissiez d’orge ne fust purez,
.ii. fois ou .iii. o le bacin colez.
Et li fourages fust jentil fein de prez,
Tot esletiz et en seson fenez;
Ne bevriëz, s’a vessel non dorez;
Le jor fussiez .iiii. foiz conreez
Et de chier poile trestoz envelopez.
Se en Espaigne es des paiens menez,
Si m’aist dex, molt en serai irez. }

Aliscans, vv. 514-24. Upon hearing these words, Baucent pawed the ground, whinnied, and was ready to go. William also pleaded and encouraged Baucent in Aliscans, vv. 990-1007.

In the medieval romance Galeran de Bretagne, Galeran’s Ten Companions of Brittany are named along with the names of their horses. In that list, there’s more additional characterization of the horses than of the knights riding them. Galeran de Bretagne vv. 5609-49, Old French edition Foulet (1925). For an English translation, Beston (2008).

Seabolt observed:

horses were used as symbols of wealth, power, and status in medieval society and as a form of conspicuous consumption.

Seabolt (2020) p. 18. Rainoart’s club was a symbolic opposite to a knight’s horse.

[5] Rainoart provided crucial fighting strength to William’s army:

William’s men would not have been able to go on
if it were not for God and the baron Rainoart.
But he alone brought the war to an end.

{ Ja li Guillaume n’en poïssent aler,
Se diex ne fust et Rainouars li ber.
Mais il tos seus fist le canp afiner }

Aliscans, vv. 4579fgh (XCV). In the end, Rainoart is recognized as a hero. He is knighted, baptized, and married to King Louis’s daughter Aelis.

[images] (1) With his powerful club, baby Bamm-Bamm rescues baby Peddles, a little damsel in distress, in the Flintstones television show. Via YouTube. (2) Mongo returns to town riding his “Yes and No” bull and punches a horse. From Mel Brooks’s 1974 film Blazing Saddles. Via YouTube.


Beston, John, trans. 2008. An English Translation of Jean Renaut’s Galeran de Bretagne, a Thirteenth-Century French Romance. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.

Ferrante, Joan M., trans. 1974. Guillaume d’Orange: Four Twelfth-Century Epics. New York: Columbia University Press. Review by Diana Teresa Mériz.

Foulet, Lucien, ed. 1925. Jean Renaut. Galeran de Bretagne: Roman du XIIIe Siècle. Paris: É. Champion. Alternate source.

Newth, Michael, trans. 2014. Heroines of the French Epic: A Second Selection of Chansons de Geste. Woobridge: D. S. Brewer.

Seabolt, Amanda Peyton. 2020. A Knight and His Horse: the social impact of horses in medieval France, 1150-1300. M.A. Thesis, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.

Stimming, Albert, ed. 1899. Der Anglonormannische Boeve De Haumtone. Halle: M. Niemeyer.

Weiss, Judith, trans. 2008. Boeve de Haumtone and Gui de Warewic: Two Anglo-Norman Romances. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 332; The French of England Translation Series, 3. Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.

Wienbeck, Erich, Wilhelm Hartnacke, and Paul Rasch, eds. 1903. Aliscans. Kritischer Text. Halle A.D.S: Verlag Von Max Niemeyer.

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