horse vs. mule: Burnel recognized value of seminal action

woman kissing donkey

In twelfth-century England, the donkey Burnel thought himself destined to become a bishop. Burnel had a traumatic childhood and low masculine self-esteem. Yet a donkey could offer more in love than could a man. Recognizing the value of seminal action, Burnel imagined himself being a bishop acting as a horse rather than as a mule.

A mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. A mule thus indicates a male donkey’s sexual broad-mindedness and vigor. Wrongly stereotyped as being stubborn, scientific testing suggests that mules are more flexible learners than are donkeys, horses, or dogs.[1] Male mules, however, are sterile. No matter how much erection labor a male mule performs for a female, the female will not get pregnant. Mules thus cannot become biological fathers.[2]

The donkey Burnel had no interest in becoming a spiritual father like a mule. In considering the role of bishop, Burnel pondered the two-horned bishop’s hat known as a mitre. In medieval Europe, an abbot could also wear a mitre. An abbot, however, lacked the sacramental capabilities of a bishop.[3] Burnel respected only fully capable fatherly horns:

No mitre nor its horns shall crown my head,
unless there’s present what accompanies it.
When all things else are lacking which belong,
what joy is there to hold the empty form?
Full bishop I shall be, for I don’t want
his honors as a mule, but as a horse.

The mule has genitalia, yet he
is always sterile and can’t reproduce.
So those who have no office, but the name,
have nothing but insignia to bear.
Forbid that I should rise and take such horns
as various ones have for themselves assumed.

I’d rather be content with both my ears
than have two horns like those appear on me.
In what they raise up, in that they’re closed off,
so mule and abbot in esteem are equal.
A lappet on an abbot’s head is worth
what testicles that hang from mules mean.
Those who in being bishops are curtailed
are made like abbots with emasculated mitres.

{ Mitra nec ascendet caput hoc neque cornua sumam,
si non affuerit quod solet inde sequi.
Cetera cum desint quae sunt comitantia mitrae,
quit juvat hac sterili conditione frui?
Plenus praesul ero, quia pontificalibus uti
nolo velut mulus, sed volo sicut equus.

Gignere cum nequeat, sua sic genitalia gestat
mulus et est sterilis tempus in omne suum.
Cum rem non habeant, sua sic insignia portant
hi qui nomen habent officioque carent.
Absit ut ascendam vel talia cornua sumam,
qualia sumpserunt ille vel ille sibi.

Auribus esse meis contentus malo duabus,
quam duo sic nasci cornua posse mihi.
In quibus excellunt quoniam patiuntur eclipsim
mulus et abbates sunt in honore pares.
Abbatis tantum capiti valet infula quantum
testiculos mulo pendere quisque velit.
Qui ne pontifices fiant sunt apocopati,
ut sint abbates syncopa mitra facit. }[4]

Horns have long been symbols of strength, virility, and cuckolding. Burnel regarded a mitre’s horns, like masculine genitalia, as beautiful and full of grace as they are, to be efficacious signs when linked to seminal action.

In medieval Europe, women and men of religious orders engaged in seminal action. According to Burnel, the secular canons thrust themselves into advocating a double duty of seminal action:

So this they strongly teach should be
observed by all through all posterity:
that as the ancient law provides, no one
should lack one girl, but each might have his two.
They love the world and grasp its fading flower,
and keep it watered lest it droop and die.

{ Illud praecipue tamen instituere tenendum
omnibus in tota posteritate sua:
lex vetus ut suasit, ne quilibet absque sua sit,
et quod quisque suas possit habere duas.
Hi sunt qui mundum cum flore cadente tenentes,
ne cito marcescat, saepe rigare student. }

The secular canons’ self-emptying love had effects on nuns, particularly abbesses, the shepherds of their convents:

Some bear no children, others do; and yet
they hide it all beneath the virgin’s name.
She who is given the honor of a pastor’s rod,
that one gives birth better and more abundantly.
Scarce one of them is found who can’t conceive
till age denies them this ability.

{ Harum sunt quaedam steriles, quaedam parientes,
virgineoque tamen nomine cuncta tegunt.
Quae pastoralis baculi donatur honore,
illa quidem melius fertiliusque parit.
Vix etiam quaevis sterilis reperitur in illis,
donec eis aetas talia posse negat. }

Under gynocentrism, signs of men’s seminal action are obscured with specious claims of virginity. Be not deceived. Women conceive almost always in conjunction with men’s seminal action.

With strong reason that would have warmed the loins of the Talavera clergy, Burnel sought to establish, for himself and others, a new religious order. Burnel’s new religious order would embrace and celebrate efficacious signs of the masculine grace that perpetuates life:

Surviving orders, apart from all delight,
a woman as my mate in lasting bond.
This order was the first, begun in Paradise,
established by the Lord, and by him blessed.
We would that this be kept forevermore
to which belonged my mother and my sire,
in which my entire race has always been,
and if it fail, the human race will end.

{ Ordine de reliquo placet ut persona secunda
foedere perpetuo sit mihi juncta comes.
Hic fuit ordo prior et conditus in Paradiso,
hunc Deus instituit et benedixit ei.
Hunc in perpetuum decrevimus esse tenendum,
cujus erat genitor cum genetrice mea,
et genus omne meum semper fuit ordinis hujus,
quo genus humanum deficiente cadet. }[5]

Burnel the donkey never become a bishop. The religious order of Burnel was never officially instituted. We call him a foolish donkey, dumber than a dumb ox, yet the soundness of his doctrine continues to resound in banging and bellowing throughout the entire world.[6]

Even in our sterile, mulish times, courageous laymen continue to engage in seminal action. Their efficacious masculinity is essential for the eternal life of humanity. It deserves to be celebrated.

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[1] Osthaus (2013). Brighteyes, a horse owner in Georgia, explained:

mules are only stubborn because they are smart. Mules know that running into or away from everything isn’t going to work as well as thinking it through. Many people will tell you “Trust your mule.” Mules are sometimes smarter than people and are highly sensible.

[2] Birth control is vitally important for men because crushing sex payments are socially imposed on men who contribute sperm to a pregnancy. However, no other animal species imposes such payments on males.

[3] From about 1125 in western Europe, mitres began to have pointed horns rising on the sides of the head. Cornua (horns) became a popular medieval term for a mitre. Here’s a medieval drawing of a side-horned mitre inserted as marginalia in a manuscript of the Speculum stultorum. Mitres today more commonly have flaps that rise from front and back to meet at a point in the middle. See a review of the history of mitres, Mozley & Raymo (1960) p. 160, note to l. 1683, and symbols of the Office of Bishop.

Before 1050 in western Europe, abbots rarely wore mitres. Abbots subsequently began wearing mitres through grants of special favor. Abbots, however, didn’t have a bishop’s capability of consecrating Holy Chrism. Mozley & Raymo (1960) pp. 160, notes to ll. 1689, 1691-1702.

[4] Nigellus Wireker, Mirror of Fools {Speculum stultorum} ll. 1683-88, 1693-98, 1705-8, (additional couplet), 1709-10, Latin text from Mozley & Raymo (1960), with the additional couplet from Wright (1872) p. 70 (noting “These two lines are omitted in A.”). English translation from Regenos (1959) pp. 90, with my adaptations. For ll. 1705-8, (additional couplet), 1709-10, Regenos has:

In what things they excel, for they fall short,
The mule and abbot are in like esteem.
The fillet means the same on abbot’s head
As signs of masculinity in mules.
Those who from being bishops are deprived
The flattened miter does not abbots make.

Id. Above I’ve attempted a clearer and more literal translation of those lines.

The additional couplet exemplifies the poetic brilliance of Speculum stultorum. Consider:

A lappet on an abbot’s head is worth
what testicles that hang from mules mean.

{ Abbatis tantum capiti valet infula quantum
testiculos mulo pendere quisque velit. }

In this couplet, the ecclesiastical accoutrement lappet {infula} is separated by only two Latin syllables from testicles {testiculos}. Testicles hang downward in the front of a man’s body. A lappet (tied around the head) typically hangs downward in two strands at the back of the head. The couplet metaphorically compares the abbot’s lappet to a mule’s testicles. That’s an extraordinarily imaginative metaphor. Moreover, the reversals top to bottom in relation to a man’s trunk and back to front in relation to the man’s ventral plane are a microcosm of the “world turned upside down” theme of the Speculum stultorum. On divine folly and the trickster tricked in the Speculum stultorum, Mann (2009) pp. 133-6.

In a grave scholarly failure, the additional couplet doesn’t appear in Mozley & Raymo’s critical edition. While the couplet in omitted in manuscript A (British Museum, MS. Hareian 2422) of the Speculum stultorum, it apparently appears in manuscript B (British Museum, MS. Arundel 23) and manuscript C (British Museum, MS. Cotton Titus A 20), as well as in the fifteenth-century printed editions from Utrecht and Paris. Mozley & Raymo (1960) pp. 9, 15, 16 (notes to 10, Wright’s edition), which identifies and describes the manuscripts corresponding to Wright’s sigla. Suppressing this couplet is part of the oppressive history of obscuring men’s masculine being and denying men’s intrinsic virtue.

The leading scholarly works on medieval beast literature lamentably don’t cover Burnel’s thoughts on a bishop’s mitre, a mule, and seminal action. Having drawn a chronological line at 1150, Ziolkowski (1993) only mentions the Speculum stultorum peripherally. Mann (2009) spends a full chapter on the Speculum stultorum. Yet like medieval scholarship in general, id. shows little consideration for men’s distinctive being and ignores the Speculum stultorum’s striking references to a male mule’s genitals and testicles.

Subsequent quotes from the Speculum stultorum are sourced like that above. Cited by Latin text line numbers and page in Regenos (1959), they are: ll. 2321-6, p. 112 (So this they…); .. 2395-2400, p. 115 (Some bear no children…); ll. 2437-4, p. 117 (Surviving ordains…). I’ve made some adaptations to Regenos translation. I note particularly substantial changes.

[5] For Ordine de reliquo placet, Regenos translates “I’m pleased to borrow from the group that’s left.” The Latin phrase seems to me to carry a pun with the natural requirement of a species’s survival. To convey that sense, I’ve translated the Latin as “Surviving orders, apart from all delight.”

[6] Thomas Aquinas is today the most famous and influential medieval theologian. Aquinas’s fellow students, however, reportedly called him a “dumb ox.”  Albertus Magnus, an eminent philosopher and theologian of Aquinas’s time, reportedly stated:

We call him the dumb ox, but he will make resound in his doctrine such a bellowing that it will echo throughout the entire world.

{ Nos vocamus istum bovem mutum, set ipse adhuc talem dabit in doctrina mugitum, quod in toto mundo sonabit. }

Quoted in Resnick (2013) p. 7, from William of Tocco’s early fourteenth-century biography of Thomas Aquinas.

[image] Woman kissing donkey. Image thanks to Jaclou-DL, who generously made it available on pixabay under a CCO Creative Commons license.


Mann, Jill. 2009. From Aesop to Reynard: beast literature in medieval Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mozley, John H., and Robert R. Raymo, ed. 1960. Nigellus Wireker. Speculum stultorum. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Osthaus, Britta, Leanne Proops, Ian Hocking, and Faith Burden. 2013. “Spatial cognition and perseveration by horses, donkeys and mules in a simple A-not-B detour task.” Animal Cognition. 16 (2): 301-305.

Regenos, Graydon W., trans. 1959. Nigellus Wireker. The book of Daun Burnel the ass: Nigellus Wireker’s Speculum stultorum. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Resnick, Irven M. 2013. “Albert the Great: Biographical Introduction.” Pp. 1-14 in Resnick, Irven M., ed. A companion to Albert the Great: theology, philosophy, and the sciences. Leiden: Brill.

Wright, Thomas, ed. 1872. The Anglo Latin satirical poets and epigrammatists of the 12th century. Vol 1. Rolls Series. London: Longman.

Ziolkowski, Jan M. 1993. Talking animals: medieval Latin beast poetry, 750-1150. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

lives of saints Cyprian and Justina show man’s suffering in love

Saints Cyprian and Justina; illumination from 11th-century Byzantine menologion

About 1700 years ago in Antioch in present-day Turkey, a wealthy, well-educated man of high birth loved a beautiful, young woman. Her name was Ioustina. His name was Aglaïdas. Aglaïdas didn’t merely have the high masculine social status that typically attracts amorous attention from women. Aglaïdas {᾽Αγλαïδας} in ancient Greek means “beautiful, splendid.”[1] Aglaïdas, like Ioustina, was also physically beautiful.

Men’s great love for women often makes men vulnerable to sexual harassment by women. So it was for Aglaïdas:

seeing often the virgin {Ioustina}, when she passed by on her way to the house of God, he was fiercely stricken by her beauty as if by an arrow — even though, with fasting and prayer, she did everything in her power to make her beauty wither and disappear as if it were a perilous and dangerous thing. Still, with his lascivious eyes, at first he would watch the streets and wait for her; and when he came face to face with her, he would shower praises on her, extol her beauty, and laud her good fortune. Then he would slowly indicate his longing through some signals, casting many nets (as one might say) and preparing for a catch. Yet for the virgin all these ploys were nothing but sheer nonsense and an annoyance. She considered them as worthy of laughter rather than attention by chaste eyes and ears. [2]

Aglaïdas showered praise on Ioustina. He obviously hadn’t learned crucial insights for men from medieval women’s love poetry. Lacking the benefit of Juvenal’s counsel to his friend Postumus, or Valerius’s words of concern to his friend Rufinus, Aglaïdas asked Ioustina to marry him. Ioustina considered herself to be a bride of Christ, and she rejected bigamy. Her courageous action probably saved Aglaïdas from a sexless marriage like Cecilia had with Valerian.

After Ioustina refused to marry him, Aglaïdas resorted to force. Bridal capture has been a common ritual forced upon men across history and across societies. It functions to emphasize women’s relatively high value in gynocentric society. Aglaïdas, however, engaged in bridal capture without the implicit consent of Ioustina and her family:

as he found the maiden to be immovable, staunch, and impossible to capture with deceptive words (though he had moved every stone, as the proverb says) he gathered abundant help, hired those specialized in matters of love, and ambushed her on the road. He thus carried her off by force to wherever he wished.

Aglaïdas didn’t rape Ioustina. Adult male humans, like other adult male primates, hardly ever engage in sexual assault against females. Violence against men is much more prevalent than violence against women. After Aglaïdas abducted Ioustina, men of the community rushed to attack Aglaïdas:

As soon as news of this outrageous daring act {Aglaïdas abducting Ioustina} spread to the city and to the household of her mother, many strong men, armed with weapons, rushed to confront the brigands. With their appearance alone, they made those appalling abductors flee out of sight — not so much because they yielded to force but rather because they were driven powerfully away by the shame of the deed. Yet Aglaïdas (as his passion was more violent than any feeling of shame) cared neither for swords nor the crowd nor anything else. Instead, he embraced the maiden and was ready to suffer anything rather than be separated from her. Ioustina became instantly like Joseph, that most chaste and most courageous man. She held the sign of the cross before her like a weapon, not against Aglaïdas, but rather against the one who was stealthily attempting to wage war against her through him. She thus immediately repelled and pushed back that abominable man. She also poured all sorts of curses upon him and rained blows and spittle upon his face that deserved it. [3]

Aglaïdas thus suffered physical assault and public shaming. He also had Ioustina, whom he had not forced into sex, forcibly taken away from him.

Aglaïdas desperately sought to regain Ioustina. He valued her above his own life:

One thing was for him worse than death itself: losing Ioustina. For a short while, sadness overtook him and desolation depressed him. But as soon as his desire was again (so to speak) rekindled, untrained as he was and rather unschooled in its resistance, he could not wrestle his lust with gentlemanly reason. He did exactly as his passion demanded and thus prepared himself for new, secret endeavors.

To inspire Ioustina to love him, Aglaïdas employed the renowned sorcerer Kyprianos. Kyprianos had been born in Carthage to noble and wealthy parents. After he became famous in Carthage for his learning in philosophy and magic, he moved to Antioch to expand the scope of his reputation from North Africa to Mesopotamia. Explaining the sorrowful misfortune of his love for Ioustina, Aglaïdas said to Kyprianos:

You are the only consolation left to me for this misfortune. Placing my trust in you alone, until this very instance I restrained my urge to choose death over life. Worry not about the amount of wealth and gold you will obtain from me if you release me from this misfortune, as I will provide them to you abundantly and exceeding all your hopes.

Many men will give up anything, including their own lives, for women they love. That’s utter folly for a man when the woman doesn’t love him. Men, even men who are not Christian, should choose life over death. Men should not sell their souls to the devil for the love of women.

The soul-destroying gender inequality in love that most ordinary men endure generates little public concern. Using the power of the sign of the cross, Ioustina decisively defeated the most powerful magic that Kyprianos could summon to gain for Aglaïdas her love. Impressed with Ioustina’s power, Kyprianos converted to Christianity. Ioustina (Justina) and Kyprianos (Cyprian) today are celebrated as saints in Orthodox Christianity. Aglaïdas and his misfortune are largely forgotten.

What men need to overcome their suffering in love for women isn’t sorcery. Like Kyprianos, Merlin the magician lacked power in relation to women. Unlike Kyprianos, Merlin didn’t choose an alternate way to a full life. Merlin died a slow, horrific death amid embalmed bodies of dead lovers.

Men who don’t want to be in loveless Hell with Aglaïdas can benefit from perceptive study of saints’ lives. Saint Paul’s seduction of Thecla teaches men the importance of conveying mastery. Saint Jerome with his boldness and self-confidence gained many women followers. Saint Andronikos courageously asserted his own views in loving discussion with his wife. While risks and dangers exist, men can gain love without committing their souls to the devil.

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[1] The text states that Aglaïdas was “allotted such a name perhaps due to his beauty.” Symeon Metaphrastes, Menologion, Life, Conduct, and Passion of Saints Kyprianos and Ioustina, para. 10, from Greek trans. Papaioannou (2017) p. 11. Id. pp. 284-5, note to 10, gives the Greek meaning of Aglaïdas. Ioustina is a Greek form of the Roman name Justina, which means fair or just. Kyprianos is a Greek name commonly known in English as Cyprian.

The Life of Kyprianos and Ioustina (Life of Cyprian and Justina) has an abundant manuscript tradition in Greek, Latin, Syriac, Arabic, Ethiopic, Coptic, and Slavonic. References to it exist in an encomium of Gregory of Nazianzos (ca. 329 – 390) and in a poem by the empress Athenais-Eudokia (ca. 400-460). Id. p. 283, note. In the Orthodox Christian calendar, the feast day for these saints is October 2. Here are narrative and prayers for the feast day of Cyprian and Justina. Here’s an English translation of a Coptic text, Confession and Martyrdom of Cyprian of Antioch.

[2] Metaphrastes, Life of Kyprianos and Ioustina, para. 10, from Greek trans. Papaioannou (2017) p. 11. I’ve made some insubstantial changes to this and subsequent quotes above to make them more easily readable. Casting nets to prepare for a catch apparently alludes to Luke 5:4.

Subsequent quotes are similarly from Metaphrastes’s Life of Kyprianos and Ioustina. Cited by paragraph and page in id., these quotes are from: 11, p. 13 (as he found the maiden…); 12, p. 13 (As soon as news…); 13, p. 15 (One thing for him…); 16, p. 17 (You are the only consolation…).

[3] An announcement of the publication of Christian novels from the Menologion of Symeon Metaphrastes quoted the account of Ioustina assaulting Aglaïdas. The announcement commented:

Like a scene from an old western, the anecdote combines melodrama and acts of derring-do; Ioustina becomes a scrappy heroine, both brave and wise {sic}, sensing the presence of greater evil behind the deeds of Aglaïdas.

Women’s violence against men is commonly trivialized within the anti-men sex bias of criminal justice systems.

[image] Saint Kyprianos (Cyprian) and Saint Ioustina (Justina). Illumination from the feast day for these saints (October 2) in an eleventh-century Byzantine menologion. Image thanks to Wikimedia Commons.


Papaioannou, Stratis, ed. and trans. 2017. Christian novels from the Menologion of Symeon Metaphrastes. Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library, Vol. 45. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

learning from women: tears will gain you forgiveness for all your crimes

woman crying

A 35-year-old woman planned and carried out a series of rapes of a 12-year-old boy. A news headline explained that she had engaged in “clandestine sex trysts” with the boy. The headline reported that she “burst into tears” at her criminal sentencing. Can you imagine such a headline describing a 35-year-old man raping a 12-year-old girl?

Former Ravens Cheerleader Completes Weekend Jail Time For Rape Of Teen Boy.” She was 49. He was 15. If a 49-year-old man had raped a 15-year-old girl, would he have been sentenced just to weekend jail time?

A 35-year-old English teacher raped a student eight times in the classroom and in a car. The teacher was sentenced to 10 years of probation. The teacher-perpetrator was a woman, and the student-victim was a boy. Do you think that gender pattern biased the criminal sentence?

While mainstream media and legal authorities largely ignore gender bias in the criminal justice system, ordinary persons are starting to notice the terrible injustice of gender-biased criminal justice. Suppose a woman rapes a boy. Suppose the rapist gets pregnant, doesn’t chose to have an abortion, doesn’t chose to legally abandon the child, and doesn’t chose to put the child up for adoption. Under what kind of justice system would the rape victim then be legally forced to make large monthly payments to his rapist? That happens under the U.S. justice system, and probably under other justice systems around the world.

Grass-roots activists have interpreted gender injustice in new ways that are far more significant than the gender ratio in particular employment categories. The point, however, is to change gender injustice. For that task, the medieval Latin masterpiece Speculum stultorum provides vital guidance. With freedom of speech that probably would not be acceptable today, that medieval Latin work boldly described cloistered nuns in England:

They’re serpent-bodied, siren-voiced, with breasts
of dragons, Paris’s heart, Susanna’s charms.
But still they have one motion that rebuts all,
a ceaseless flow of tears before their God.
With these they pray to God and win his grace,
with these they cleanse their hearts of all their crimes.

{ Corpore serpentes, sirenes voce, dracones
pectore, Susanna smigmate, corde Paris.
Sed tamen illud habent, unum quod cuncta refellit,
ante Deum lacrimas quae sine lege fluunt.
His Dominum placant semper veniamque merentur,
his sua cunta lavant crimina, quicquid agunt. }

Men too deserve forgiveness for all their crimes. To achieve gender equality with women, men must cry openly and profusely in the face of appalling injustices against men.

Some women strive to shame men into repressing their tears. In the twelfth century, Heloise of the Paraclete and Peter Abelard, or a woman and man similar to them, were in love. They, however, were upset with each other. He wrote to her:

I received a letter with your tears. To you I send my letter with tears.

{cum lacrimis tuis scripta recept, cum lacrimis mea scripta remitto. }

She rebuked him for his tears:

I do not want any more tears to burst forth from your eyes, for it is improper for a man to weep, when he of honorable firmness should be strict with himself.

{ Lacrimas ulterius nolo ab oculis tuis prorumpi, quia indecens est virum flere, cum honesti rigoris debeat in se severitatem tenere. }

If men cry, more persons might realize that men are human beings. More persons might feel compelled to treat men with human compassion. People might even start to protest the criminalization of men and the vastly disproportionate incarceration of men.

Men still wait for justice systems to provide equal justice under law. At least God hears the cries of the poor while gynocratic society ignores them.

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The first quote above is from Nigellus Wireker, Mirror of Fools {Speculum stultorum} ll. 2379-84, Latin text from Mozley & Raymo (1960) p. 67. I’ve adapted the English translation from Regenos (1959) p. 114.

The second and third quotes are excerpted from Letters of Two Lovers {Epistolae duorum amantium}, Letter 61 (man to woman) and Letter 62 (woman to man), Latin text from Mews (1999), my English translation, benefiting from those of id. and Newman (2016).

With remarkable boldness, Heldris of Cornwall, the narrator of the thirteenth-century Romance of Silence {Roman de Silence} declared of the evil Queen Eufeme:

By crying she wanted to trick him
into thinking that she didn’t want to do wrong,
for a woman cries in cunning
when she wants to carry out her deception.

{ Par plorer le violt engignier
Qu’ele ne violt pas forlignier:
Car feme plore par voidie
Quant aënplir violt sa boisdie. }

Roman de Silence, vv. 4155-8, Old French text and English translation (modified) from Roche-Mahdi (1992).

[image] Woman crying. Image created by the U.S. Marine Corps for National Domestic Violence Awareness month in 2009. Via Wikimedia Commons. The U.S. criminal justice system gender-profiles men for arrest for domestic violence. The U.S. also administers separate and highly gender-unequal services for victims of domestic violence.


Mews, Constant J. 1999. The Lost Love letters of Heloise and Abelard: perceptions of dialogue in twelfth-century France. Houndmills: Macmillan.

Mozley, John H., and Robert R. Raymo, ed. 1960. Nigellus Wireker. Speculum stultorum. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Newman, Barbara. 2016. Making Love in the Twelfth Century: Letters of two lovers in context. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Regenos, Graydon W, trans. 1959. Nigellus Wireker. The Book of Daun Burnel the ass: Nigellus Wireker’s Speculum stultorum. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Roche-Mahdi, Sarah, ed. and trans. 1992. Silence: A Thirteenth-Century French Romance. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.